# Specifying the stepper motor

1. Determine the required positioning accuracy and hence the step resolution. The first task is to determine the maximum resolution that can be achieved. The resolution can be increased via mechanical gear reduction devices such as spindles, gearing or toothed racks. The 64-fold microstepping of the stepper motor terminals also has to be taken into account.
2. Determine mass (m) and moment of inertia (J) of all parts to be moved
3. Calculate the acceleration resulting from the temporal requirements of the moved mass.
4. Calculate the forces from mass, moment of inertia, and the respective accelerations.
5. Convert the forces and velocities to the rotor axis, taking account of efficiencies, moments of friction and mechanical parameters such as gear ratio. It is often best to start the calculation from the last component, usually the load. Each further element transfers a force and velocity and leads to further forces or torques due to friction. During positioning, the sum of all forces and torques acts on the motor shaft. The result is a velocity/torque curve that the motor has to provide.
6. Using the characteristic torque curve, select a motor that meets these minimum requirements. The moment of inertia of the motor has to be added to the complete drive. Verify your selection. In order to provide an adequate safety margin, the torque should be oversized by 20% to 30%. The optimization is different if the acceleration is mainly required for the rotor moment of inertia. In this case, the motor should be as small as possible.
7. Test the motor under actual application conditions: Monitor the housing temperatures during continuous operation. If the test results do not confirm the calculations, check the assumed parameters and boundary conditions. It is important to also check side effects such as resonance, mechanical play, settings for the maximum operation frequency and the ramp slope.
8. Different measures are available for optimizing the performance of the drive: using lighter materials or hollow instead of solid body, reducing mechanical mass. The control system can also have significant influence on the behaviour of the drive. The Bus Terminal enables operation with different supply voltages. The characteristic torque curve can be extended by increasing the voltage. In this case, a current increase factor can supply a higher torque at the crucial moment, while a general reduction of the current can significantly reduce the motor temperature. For specific applications, it may be advisable to use a specially adapted motor winding.